Premarin tablets are used to treat symptoms of menopause
such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, etc.
The influence of menopause on the state of health
Climacteric syndrome occurs in three forms.
1. A typical form, its main sign - "hot flashes" - a feeling of heat suddenly arising in the head and upper body; They may be the only manifestation, but more often they are combined with a slight headache, increased irritability, increased excitability, sweating, dizziness, palpitations, pain in the heart, nausea, disturbances in the rhythm of sleep.
2. Atypical form - rarely occurs in women who have been physically and mentally traumatized in the past, infectious, general and gynecological diseases, surgical interventions, work in conditions of increased overloads and occupational hazards. With this form, atypical symptoms are added to the symptoms "typical": pronounced insomnia, tearfulness, memory impairment, decreased efficiency, increased appetite, increased pain in the heart, the appearance of quite palpable palpitations, frequent headaches, constipation, diarrhea, And painful urination, itching of the hands, legs and genitals, deterioration of vision, hearing, rapid weight gain, bone pain, hair loss, pigment spots of the skin of the face, hands, chest, etc. Atypical form of menopause The syndrome can be manifested as:
- 1) climacteric cardiopathy - pathology in the heart muscle, which must be distinguished from coronary heart disease;
- 2) sympathoadrenal crises: sudden attacks of anxiety, fear of death, accompanied by chills, increased blood pressure, lasting from 10 minutes to one hour, at the end of the attack - weakness, profuse urination;
- 3) special forms of climacteric syndrome:
- senile (senile) colpitis - inflammation of the vagina with an increased amount of secretions;
- urinary incontinence, cystalgia (painful bladder);
- progressive obesity.
3. Complicated, or combined, form occurs against the background of common diseases. It flows against the background:
- 1) hypertensive disease;
- 2) ischemic heart disease;
- 3) diencephalic syndrome (pathology of the hypothalamus with a metabolic disorder);
- 4) endocrine diseases (pathology of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, diabetes mellitus);
- 5) hepatitis, cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia and cholelithiasis;
- 6) allergic diseases;
- 7) mental disorders and diseases: hysteria, melancholy, mania; In addition, the deficiency of estrogen is a significant factor in the development of marasmus in old age.
In a typical form, menopause occurs in a timely manner (about 50 years), later (after 2-6 months) in postmenopausal women, typical symptoms appear which over the next 3-6 months progress, and then gradually, after 15-20 months, disappear.
According to the number of "tides", a mild, moderate severity and severe climacteric syndrome are distinguished.
Mild climacteric syndrome - occurs up to 10 "tides" per day, the general condition does not change significantly. Climacteric syndrome in mild degree occurs in 50% of women with menopausal syndrome.
The climacteric syndrome is of average severity - up to 10-20 "tides" per day, other symptoms (headache, dizziness, memory impairment) are added, that is, the general condition of a woman worsens.
Heavy form is characterized by a number of "tides" from 30 per day to 10-15 per hour. There are vegeto-vascular, metabolic, endocrine and trophic disorders, and the general condition of a woman suffers very much, examination and treatment in a hospital is necessary.
Effect on the functioning of the thyroid gland
If a woman with a climacteric syndrome develops hyperthyroidism (increased function of the thyroid gland), then frequent "hot flushes" are joined by a frequent severe headache, very rapid nervous exhaustion and heightened emotionality (a woman cries, and in a few minutes can already laugh or vice versa) . Strong sweating is almost constant, very bad sleep, sharply increased pulse for the slightest load, poor heat tolerance. There are signs that are characteristic only for this disease: weight loss (unlike the typical menopause, in which obesity almost always increases) and "big eyes" in a thin, blushing face is the so-called Gref symptom, the eyes seem to come out of their orbits. In a woman with hyperthyroidism, damp skin, trembling (tremor) of hands, haste of movements, rapid speech, high body temperature (37.0-37.4 ° C) - subfebrile condition. In this case, the thyroid gland size and the severity of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) are not related: with slight thyroid gland enlargement there may be expressed signs of thyrotoxicosis. And, conversely, with a greatly increased goiter, signs of increased function may generally be absent (euthyroid goiter).
With hyperthyroidism, pain in the heart appears or becomes worse with a violation of the metabolism and nutrition of the heart muscle - and this often serves as an indication for the surgical treatment of thyrotoxic goiter.
With climacteric dysfunctional uterine bleeding hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) is observed, the extreme manifestation of which is meksedema - mucous edema of the whole body.
Hypothyroidism manifests itself completely different, directly opposite the climax, the symptoms of aging. With the addition of hypothyroidism to menopausal syndrome, the woman seems to grow old prematurely. There are severe dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, fragility of hair and nails, increased drowsiness, lethargy, apathy, weakness, low body temperature (36.2-36.5 ° C), slow heart rate (less than 60 beats per minute), depression, And mental activity, chilliness, swelling of the skin and mucous membranes, whose difference in increased density: the skin can not be folded. Hypothyroidism requires the administration of thyroid hormone drugs, which are drunk constantly, but the dose is adjusted by the doctor. All these symptoms are caused by the fact that the thyroid gland is responsible for the level and strength of metabolic processes, therefore, as its function increases, the metabolism in the body rises sharply, which causes all the symptoms, and with a decrease in function, the exchange decreases and slows down.
Influence on the operation of the pancreas
Breaking the hormonal function of the pancreas is diabetes. Its manifestations, especially in the initial stage, are very similar to the manifestations of a typical menopause: weakness, rapid fatigue, rapid nervous exhaustion, increased thirst, polyuria (increased urine separation), skin itching, increased appetite, weight change.
All women with manifestations of menopausal syndrome should definitely donate blood for sugar to exclude diabetes.
Influence on the work of the adrenal glands
Disease of the adrenal glands can be suspected by the appearance of symptoms of hyperandrogenism: hyper-sutism (increased hair growth over the upper lip, cheeks, chin, chest, legs and hands), acne (acne), seborrhea (increased fatty hair with dandruff), an increase in the clitoris, Hypertrophy of the muscles, coarsening of the voice, alopecia, reduction of the mammary glands. It is important when these symptoms appear. If in childhood it is ACS (adrenogenital syndrome), if in the menopausal period (they are expressed in this case unsharp), then this is an indicator that the climacterium is complicated and the endocrinologist is needed. If these symptoms appear at any age and rapidly progress, then, probably, these are manifestations of adrenal or ovarian tumors, since the source of androgens in a woman is the adrenal and ovaries.
Influence on the work of reproductive organs
Women also need to know that a number of gynecological diseases worsen the course of the menopausal period and, overlapping it, causes its pathological course (climacteric syndrome or hyperplastic processes in the uterus with the appearance of bleeding). The main diseases are as follows.
1. Diseases of the ovaries and fallopian tubes:
- 1) ovarian cysts and hormonal-active ovarian tumors;
- 2) chronic salpingitis and salpingo-oophoritis (inflammation of the uterine appendages) - serous, purulent, more often play the role of inflammation of tuberculous or gonorrheal etiology;
- 3) endometriosis of ovaries and fallopian tubes;
- 4) cancer of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
2. Diseases of the uterus and cervix:
- 1) nodular and diffuse fibroids and fibroids of the uterus and cervix;
- 2) endometriosis of the uterus body (adenomyosis) and cervix;
- 3) atypical endometrial hyperplasia, cervical polyps, uterine bodies.
3. Diseases of the vulva and vagina:
- 1) leukoplakia, kraurosis, colpitis of various etiologies, ulcerative colpitis;
- 2) pelvic pain syndrome.
Dystrophic defeat of the external genital organs in the climacteric period in women is called kraurosis, it occurs quite often and causes a lot of suffering for a woman. It passes in its development of 3 periods:
1. Edema (swelling) and reddening of the skin and mucous membranes of large and small labia, because of this itching appears, almost constant, it becomes painful, there are pains in this area.
2. Dry tissues. They become dry, thinned, lose luster and elasticity, acquire a pinkish-whitish color, sometimes a brown color; Hair on the large labia come off; Small labia atrophy; The skin gradually acquires the appearance of shriveled tissue paper.
3. Wrinkling, scarring and sclerosing, there is complete atrophy of the external genitalia, densification of the skin, the entrance to the vagina first gapes, then begins to narrow until complete infection. Most of all with this disease, a woman is concerned about the itching, sometimes leading to a severe neurosis.
Kraurosis of the vulva can be combined with another disease - leukoplakia, which is characterized by the formation of whitish plaques.
Both kraurosis and leukoplakia are precancerous diseases, but the frequency of their transition to cancer varies widely - from 1-2 to 91%.
The initial impetus to the development of these diseases is also the defeat of the hypothalamus, which is why the function of the ovaries and the adrenal cortex is disrupted, and because of this, the receptors of the external genital organs change, then the infection joins.
When kraurose requires a full-fledged, vitaminized food, refusal to wash with soap, from synthetic and woolen linen. Sweating should be done with the decoction of chamomile, calendula, baking soda, douching with lactic acid, with the help of sedentary baths with chamomile, hot pads moistened with broth string, St. John's Wort. Use ointments with anestezine, diphenhydramine. The above treatment can be performed by a woman herself (after examining the gynecologist and clarifying the diagnosis).
Hormonal drugs have a very good effect, but they can be used only under the control and on the prescription of a gynecologist.
In this case, estrogen preparations (estrone, ethinyl estradiol) are used in a certain dosage with a gradually decreasing dose. Estrogen preparations are also used topically in the form of creams and ointments, also under the supervision of a doctor. With prolonged use of estrogens, they are combined with male hormones (androgens) in a combination of 1: 10 or 1: 20 to prevent the development of hyperplastic processes in the uterus, ovaries and mammary glands.
A good effect is provided by ointments containing adrenal hormones (corticosteroids), synalar, lacorten, fluorocort, oxycorte, etc.